Really interesting discussion. Some useful info on engine design:
For contemporary naturally-aspirated, two-valve-per-cylinder, pushrod-engine technology, a VE over 95% is excellent, and 100% is achievable, but quite difficult. Only the best of the best can reach 110%, and that is by means of extremely specialized development of the complex system comprised of the intake passages, combustion chambers, exhaust passages and valve system components. The practical limit for normally-aspirated engines, typically DOHC layout with four or more valves per cylinder, is about 115%, which can only be achieved under the most highly-developed conditions, with precise intake and exhaust passage tuning.
Chapter on torque:
Torque charts for a few engine designs: